At last there’s a wonderful overview of charity in Judaism in late antiquity! Take a look at Gregg Gardner’s The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015). Gardner is Assistant Professor and The Diamond Chair in Jewish Law and Ethics at the University of British Columbia. Gardner’s book is a very welcome voice in what had been a distressing scholarly gap. For more on Jewish voices on the poor in late antiquity and the early medieval period, see also Mark Cohen’s 2-volume study, Poverty and Charity in the Jewish Community of Medieval Egypt and The Voice of the Poor in the Middle Ages: An Anthology of Documents from the Cairo Geniza.